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Analysis of common working principle of dust collector


The working principle of the dust collector is generally analyzed. Dust collector equipment: The equipment that separates dust from the flue gas is called dust collector or dust collector equipment. Everyone has the experience of wearing a mask, which is a simple filter and dust collector. The dust removal mechanism of the dust collector device is very simple. It is the same as the dust removal mechanism of the mask, which is realized by the mechanical interception of the fly ash particles in the flue gas by the filter material. But in addition, the fly ash particles received first form a stable and dense ash layer (commonly called filter cake or filter bed) on the surface of the filter material, which also plays a good filtering role, especially It is a dedusting equipment using a knitted cloth as a filter bag. This layer of filter bed plays the main filtering role.
Filter element: The filter element can be woven (or needled) from cotton wool fiber, glass fiber or various chemical fibers into a filter material, and then sewn into a vertical hanging filter bag. Different filter materials should be used for different occasions. The dust collected on the filter bag deforms the cloth bag by periodic mechanical shaking, filtered flue gas blowback or pulsed blowback of compressed air to remove the ash.
The filter cake (filter bed) formed by the flue gas through the filter bag and the surface of the filter material depends on the pressure difference between the two sides of the filter layer-this pressure difference is often called the tube sheet pressure difference dp (sometimes also called the filter bed pressure difference). In the collection of fly ash, a special parameter is the speed of filtering smoke-the amount of air filtered by the filter cloth per minute per square meter. The pressure difference dp of the filter bed is linearly proportional to the speed of smoke, and therefore linearly proportional to the flow of smoke. This fixed proportionality coefficient is often called filter resistance. According to this definition, the filter resistance is not related to the flue gas flow, which is similar to the concept of resistance. We express the average filtration speed as the air-to-cloth ratio-it is the ratio of the amount of smoke to the entire filtration area (units are expressed in m3 / m2 / min). This parameter is a very important technical index in the selection and design of bag dust removal equipment.
The remaining pressure loss of the bag dust removal equipment is caused by the flue and the baffle door between the inlet flanges of the bag dust removal equipment. The magnitude of this pressure drop is directly proportional to the square of the flow velocity of the flue gas, so the pressure drop Δp. Of the entire bag dust removal equipment is in a quadratic relationship with the flue gas volume.
Δptotal = K1Q1 + K2Q2
K1 = Kdrag / A (Kdrag = filter resistance, A = filtered surface area)
K2 = pressure loss coefficient of flue gas duct and baffle door Q = performance of the flue gas dust removal equipment is expressed by the amount of gas that can be processed, the resistance loss when the gas passes through the dust removal equipment, and the dust removal efficiency. At the same time, the price, operation and maintenance costs, length of service life, and ease of operation and management of dust removal equipment are also important factors in considering its performance.
Dust collector equipment is divided into the following five categories according to its function principle:
(1) Mechanical dust collector equipment includes gravity dust collector , inertial dust collector , centrifugal dust collector , etc.
(2) Washing type dust removal equipment includes water bath dust removal equipment, foam dust removal equipment, venturi tube dust removal equipment, water film dust removal equipment, etc.
(3) Filter type dust removal equipment, including bag dust removal equipment and particle layer dust removal equipment, etc.
(4) Electrostatic dust removal equipment.
(5) Magnetic dust removal equipment.
Inertial dust removal equipment is a dust removal equipment that makes the dust-containing gas collide with the baffle or sharply change the direction of the air flow, and uses inertial force to separate and capture dust. Inertial dust removal equipment is also called inert dust removal equipment.
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